I ask children in the exam room how they’re doing in school, and generally they say O.K., or good, or maybe they squirm and say, not so good this year. The pediatric wisdom is always to push a little further, to ask for specifics — what subjects do you like best, which are the hardest, what kinds of grades did you get on your last report card?
You want to be alert for clues to problems that can get in the way of school achievement, from learning disabilities to behavioral problems to mental health issues. Asking about report cards is certainly not sufficient, but it’s a quick and almost universal beginning, and maybe a window into family function as well.
When I was in school, I remember there were some kids who got financial rewards, a dollar for every A, or some such, and those of us who came from families that scorned such techniques were always deeply jealous, unable to keep from calculating what our take would have been, if only we had different parents.
Actually, the standard parental response that I remember, the joke repeated (with accompanying eye-rolls) at least among the students in good standing, was that if you got four A’s and a B, a parent would always ignore the A’s and ask what had gone wrong in the fifth class.
When a study was published last December in JAMA Pediatrics showing that when report cards were sent out on Fridays, child maltreatment seemed to increase on the Saturdays immediately following, as measured in confirmed reports of physical abuse, the results provoked conversations about spanking and discipline, about school achievement and behavior.
It was also a novel research lens to look at family dynamics. “Nobody else has used report cards,” said the lead author, Melissa Bright, an assistant research scientist at the Anita Zucker Center for Excellence in Early Childhood Studies at the University of Florida.
Schools also get “graded” nowadays, and there is research that looks at the economic impact of school rankings, which serve as a sort of “report card” for the schools. A study, also done in Florida, showed that housing prices were impacted when the state started grading individual schools according to student test scores after 2002.
“If the state gives a top rating to a school, people want to live in that neighborhood, and there’s a pretty strong housing price bump,” said David N. Figlio, the dean of the School of Education and Social Policy at Northwestern University, who was one of the co-authors. “We’re talking now 7 to 10 percent increases in house prices associated with getting the top rating on the school.”
The report cards that schools send out on their students are, cumulatively, a report on how well the school is functioning. But to individual parents, looking at individual children, they may seem to focus attention on a child’s problems or deficits. The recent study was based on anecdotal observations from the health care system and the school system that cases of abuse went up around report card time, so researchers looked at calls to the child abuse hotline, and at the results of the subsequent investigations.
They didn’t see an overall blanket increase around report card time, as they had expected, but instead saw what Dr. Bright called “this Friday-Saturday effect; when the report cards came out on a Friday, we did see an increase in calls on Saturday where physical abuse was later confirmed.”
“Our hypothesis is, the report cards are coming out, the report cards are bad, bad grades or negative behavioral notes turn into punishment gone too far, turn into physical abuse” from some parents, Dr. Bright said. But the study did not look at the content of the individual report cards, or trace a direct cause and effect relationship between bad report cards and punishment.
Why the Friday-Saturday effect with the report cards? “We don’t know,” Dr. Bright said, though researchers speculated that it might be because of the increased amount — and intensity — of parent-child contact on the weekends, and also less sense of being observed by teachers and others who might file reports.
“We know kids get punished for poor behavior,” she said. And grades go down when children are physically abused, she said, “so it’s probably a cycle.”
There were also, no question, kids I went to school with who talked about the possibility that they would be spanked for bringing home bad report cards, and that would not particularly have stuck out as remarkable during those years (my own parents, devotees of Dr. Spock, had generally resolved against spanking or slapping, and did their level best to keep the resolution).
Spanking would not constitute abuse in Florida, Dr. Bright pointed out: “We are one of the 19 states that still allows corporal punishment in schools.”
One month before the report card study, the American Academy of Pediatrics had issued a revised policy statement on “Effective Discipline to Raise Healthy Children,” recommending against spanking in the strongest and most unequivocal terms it has ever used.
It’s still hard to talk about spanking. Many parents (and some parenting authorities) are troubled by the idea that all spanking is being regarded as close to child abuse.
“I think parents struggle with how they discipline their children,” said Dr. Benjamin S. Siegel, a professor of pediatrics at Boston University and one of the co-authors of the statement. Often they rely on how they were raised themselves, he said, and that can lead to parents feeling, “I was spanked and I turned out O.K.”
But many parents who spank their children feel bad about it, he said. “The accumulated evidence says, one, you don’t have to spank, and spanking is ineffective long term.” The evidence shows, he said, “the more you spank, the more aggressive behavior; the more aggressive behavior, the more you spank — there’s a cycle.”
Discipline is really teaching, Dr. Siegel said, and “the biggest message is that pediatricians can help parents, parents don’t have to spank.”
Family life can be stressful, weekends can be intense, and report cards can be hard on children and on parents.
“My take home is that we shouldn’t focus on the negative, we shouldn’t focus on deficits,” Dr. Bright said. Schools should also focus on children’s strengths, and increase communication with families about those strengths, she said. And when report cards come around, schools should try reframing it.
“Consider using that time as a targeted effort to remind parents, hey, here are the strengths of your child,” Dr. Bright said. “When you just give negative feedback all the time, you’re probably not going to get your desired outcome.”
In thinking about discipline, Dr. Siegel also called for a “positivist” approach: “How do you teach parents to recognize, nurture and support each stage?”B:
广州传真中特诗2015全年图纸记录11【月】7【日】，【一】【场】【原】【本】【毫】【无】【亮】【点】，【现】【在】【却】【关】【注】【度】【满】【满】【的】【比】【赛】【在】【联】【邦】【速】【递】【球】【馆】【开】【打】。 【这】【场】【比】【赛】【虽】【然】【不】【是】【全】【美】【直】【播】，【但】T.NT【依】【然】【派】【出】【了】【他】【们】【的】【逗】【比】【三】【人】【天】【团】【来】【到】【现】【场】。【在】【安】【东】【尼】.【戴】【维】【斯】【击】【溃】【詹】【姆】【斯】【后】，【这】【场】【比】【赛】【的】【意】【义】【就】【已】【经】【大】【不】【一】【样】【了】。 【比】【赛】【开】【始】【之】【前】，【有】【镜】【头】【给】【了】【在】【替】【补】【席】【上】【安】【坐】【的】【扎】【克】.【兰】【多】【夫】【一】【个】【特】
【刘】【家】【大】【宅】【里】，【刘】【耀】【国】【转】【动】【着】【手】【里】【的】【胡】【桃】，【一】【脸】【的】【冷】【俊】【肃】【穆】，【两】【眼】【盯】【着】【前】【方】【的】【某】【处】，【牙】【关】【死】【死】【的】【咬】【紧】。 【一】【旁】【站】【着】【的】【秘】【书】，【被】【他】【周】【身】【散】【发】【出】【来】【的】【冷】【气】【冻】【得】【僵】【在】【那】，【大】【气】【也】【不】【敢】【出】。 【许】【久】 “【事】【情】【给】【我】【好】【好】【调】【查】【清】【楚】，【这】【事】【早】【已】【平】【息】【了】【呢】，【再】【提】【起】，【怕】【是】【有】【心】【人】【要】【故】【意】【为】【之】，【给】【我】【揪】【出】【来】，【我】【要】【亲】【自】【会】【会】【他】。”【刘】【耀】
“【不】【是】【你】【说】【的】【吗】？【她】【生】【前】【最】【爱】【美】【了】，【我】【作】【为】【她】【曾】【经】【的】【相】【公】，【怎】【么】【会】【不】【知】【道】【一】【夜】【夫】【妻】【百】【日】【恩】【呢】？【总】【归】【是】【不】【能】【让】【她】【对】【我】【再】【怀】【揣】【着】【怨】【恨】【之】【心】【吧】。” “【你】【说】【的】【可】【是】【真】【的】？”【慕】【流】【风】【看】【着】【邹】【长】【青】【走】【进】【并】【把】【自】【己】【身】【上】【的】【绳】【子】【解】【开】，【慕】【流】【风】【才】【知】【道】【原】【来】【邹】【长】【青】【并】【没】【有】【说】【笑】。 “【走】【吧】，【别】【让】【他】【们】【等】【太】【久】，【也】【别】【让】【她】【等】【太】【久】。”
【一】【行】【人】【告】【辞】【下】【山】。 - 【八】【王】【府】【门】【口】，【守】【在】【外】【面】【的】【士】【兵】，【顿】【时】【大】【喊】【起】【来】：“【八】【王】【爷】【回】【来】【了】，【八】【王】【爷】【回】【来】【了】！” 【没】【一】【会】【儿】，【老】【管】【家】【急】【匆】【匆】【而】【来】，【一】【看】【到】【北】【墨】【城】，【老】【泪】【落】【下】【来】【了】：“【老】【奴】【参】【见】【八】【王】【爷】！” 【说】【着】，【就】【跪】【下】【去】【了】。 【北】【墨】【城】【快】【步】【上】【前】【将】【他】【扶】【起】【来】，【道】：“【管】【家】【你】【这】【是】【做】【什】【么】。” 【管】【家】【激】【动】【到】【说】广州传真中特诗2015全年图纸记录“【我】【可】【能】【目】【睹】【了】【杀】【人】【案】【的】【凶】【手】，”【凌】【远】【到】【了】【小】【镇】【上】【的】【警】【察】【局】，【对】【着】【面】【前】【一】【个】【黑】【人】【警】【官】【说】【道】， “【昨】【天】【晚】【上】【的】【时】【候】，【吃】【过】【晚】【饭】，【正】【在】【外】【面】【散】【步】，【我】【看】【到】【了】【邻】【居】【的】【一】【个】【男】【孩】，【他】【衣】【服】【上】【有】【很】【多】【血】。 【我】【当】【时】【也】【没】【有】【多】【想】，【可】【今】【天】【我】【看】【到】【了】【新】【闻】【上】【报】【道】【的】【杀】【人】【案】，【我】【觉】【得】，【两】【件】【事】【可】【能】【会】【有】【关】【系】。” “【当】【然】，【我】【也】【不】【能】
【韩】【云】【朵】【答】【应】【了】【我】，【她】【会】【派】【一】【只】【小】【狐】【狸】，【待】【我】【离】【开】【后】，【就】【把】【我】【的】【人】【皮】【取】【下】【来】，【给】【她】【穿】【着】，【让】【她】【代】【替】【我】，【在】【这】【世】【上】，【陪】【着】【我】【在】【意】【的】【人】，【走】【完】【他】【们】【的】【人】【生】。 【这】【样】，【我】【就】【没】【有】【任】【何】【遗】【憾】【了】。 【三】【日】【之】【期】【结】【束】【了】。 【韩】【云】【朵】，【韩】【菲】【菲】，【苗】【秒】，【苗】【清】，【甚】【至】【是】【洛】【天】，【他】【们】【都】【来】【了】。 “【你】【确】【定】【不】【要】【再】【考】【虑】【一】【下】？” 【韩】【云】